umroh oktober

Ingin ke Mars? Kini waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mewujudkannya menjadi kenyataan bahkan lebih singkat dari waktu yang mungkin dibutuhkan untuk menemukan vaksin atau obat dari beragam penyakit. Hanya 20 tahun!

WASHINGTON, Saco-Indonesia.com - Ingin ke Mars? Kini waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mewujudkannya menjadi kenyataan bahkan lebih singkat dari waktu yang mungkin dibutuhkan untuk menemukan vaksin atau obat dari beragam penyakit. Hanya 20 tahun!

Sebuah rencana untuk menerbangkan suami istri ke Mars lewat program Inspiration Mars ditawarkan oleh miliuner Dennis Tito. Sementara, misi Mars One yang lebih ekstrem berencana memberangkatkan manusia  ke Mars tanpa kembali ke Bumi dalam satu dekade dari sekarang.

Badan Penerbangan dan Antariksa Amerika Serikat (NASA) dalam pernyataannya seperti dikutip AFP, Senin (6/5/2013), mengatakan bahwa sangat mungkin bagi manusia untuk mendarat di Mars. Waktunya hanya 20 tahun dari sekarang. Alias, pada tahun 2033, manusia sudah bisa mendarat di Mars.

Mulai Senin kemarin, beberapa nama besar dalam dunia keantariksaan membahas kemungkinan manusia mendarat dan mengolonisasi Mars dalam konferensi yang akan berlangsung tiga hari. Peluang serta tantangan yang dihadapi dibahas.

Berbagai pihak mengatakan, tantangan ke Mars bukanlah masalah teknologi, tetapi masalah uang. NASA saja yang berada di bawah pengelolaan negara maju mengalami krisis keuangan karena hanya mendapatkan 0,5 persen dari anggaran negara. Bagaimana dengan negara seperti Indonesia?

"Jika kita memulai dari sekarang, sangat mungkin mendarat di Mars dalam 20 tahun. Ini tidak butuh keajaiban, ini membutuhkan uang dan rencana untuk mengatasi tantangan dalam rekayasa teknologi," kata Scott Hubbard, pakar dari Stanford University.

Hubbard menuturkan, salah satu tantangan terbesar adalah membawa beban hingga 30-40 ton ke Mars. Beban itu adalah beban minimal yang dibutuhkan untuk membangun habitat di Mars. Tantangan lain adalah menyediakan bahan bakar yang cukup untuk ke Mars.

NASA sendiri kini tengah mengembangkan Space Launch System dan kapsul Orion untuk mendukung perjalanan rut Hubbard, bahan bakar nuklir dibutuhkan untuk mendukung daya dorong dan menyingkat waktu perjalanan hingga 3 bulan.

Selain masalah teknologi, tantangan lain dalam perjalanan ke Mars juga harus dipecahkan. Dampak radiasi sendiri kini belum dipahami betul akibatnya bagi kesehatan manusia. Salah satu yang telah diprediksi, radiasi bisa memicu kanker. Perlu dipahami efeknya bagi sistem saraf pusat atau otak.

Tantangan lain adalah masalah fisiologi, seperti berkurangnya massa jenis tulang dan otot. Lalu juga masalah psikologis yang mencakup perasaan kesendirian menjalani misi hingga tinggal di tempat yang sama sekali baru. Jika tantangan itu diatasi, mendarat di Mars bukanlah tak mungkin.

Sumber :AFP/Kompas.com
Editor :Maulana Lee

Asep Wiarsa yang berusia (38) tahun, sopir Bus PO Haryanto yang telah melarikan diri pascainsiden kecelakaan dengan kereta api t

Asep Wiarsa yang berusia (38) tahun, sopir Bus PO Haryanto yang telah melarikan diri pascainsiden kecelakaan dengan kereta api telah berhasil dibekuk oleh Unit Reskrim Polsek Cikarang Barat, Kabupaten Bekasi, Senin (10/3) dini hari tadi. "Ditangkap di rumah pamannya di Kampung Rawalele, Kecamatan Dawuan, Kabupaten Subang," kata Kapolsek Cikarang Barat, Kompol Andre Librian. Petugas lalu telah membawa pelaku ke Polsek Cikarang Barat untuk dapat diperiksa terkait dalam kecelakaan yang terjadi pada Sabtu lalu. Statusnya saat ini juga masih sebagai saksi. "Belum ada penetapan tersangka," kata dia. Sopir itu sebelumnya telah melarikan diri. Dia dicari untuk dapat dimintai keterangan, terkait dalam peristiwa kecelakaan bus dengan kereta api di Perlintasan sebidang, Desa Wanasari, Kecamatan Cibitung. Bus yang ditabarak itu mengangkut sekitar 35 penumpang anak yatim dari Desa Wanasari. Bus ditabrak di bagian belakang kanan hingga terseret beberapa meter sampai berputar 90 derajat. Rencana pengajian dan santunan di kediaman putri Menteri Kehutanan, Zulkifli Hasan pun batal. Seluruh korban luka-luka langsung dilarikan ke Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Kabupaten Bekasi, dan beberapa rumah sakit swasta. Polisi telah mencatat sembilan orang mengalami luka berat. Lima dirawat di RSUD, sedangkan empat lainnya dirujuk ke rumah sakit swasta karena luka cukup parah. Hasil pemeriksaan sejumlah saksi, penyebab kecelakaan itu dikarenakan sopir nekat menerobos perlintasan meski alarm sudah berbunyi.

The bottle Mr. Sokolin famously broke was a 1787 Château Margaux, which was said to have belonged to Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Sokolin had been hoping to sell it for $519,750.

Though Robin and Joan Rolfs owned two rare talking dolls manufactured by Thomas Edison’s phonograph company in 1890, they did not dare play the wax cylinder records tucked inside each one.

The Rolfses, longtime collectors of Edison phonographs, knew that if they turned the cranks on the dolls’ backs, the steel phonograph needle might damage or destroy the grooves of the hollow, ring-shaped cylinder. And so for years, the dolls sat side by side inside a display cabinet, bearers of a message from the dawn of sound recording that nobody could hear.

In 1890, Edison’s dolls were a flop; production lasted only six weeks. Children found them difficult to operate and more scary than cuddly. The recordings inside, which featured snippets of nursery rhymes, wore out quickly.

Yet sound historians say the cylinders were the first entertainment records ever made, and the young girls hired to recite the rhymes were the world’s first recording artists.

Year after year, the Rolfses asked experts if there might be a safe way to play the recordings. Then a government laboratory developed a method to play fragile records without touching them.

Audio

The technique relies on a microscope to create images of the grooves in exquisite detail. A computer approximates — with great accuracy — the sounds that would have been created by a needle moving through those grooves.

In 2014, the technology was made available for the first time outside the laboratory.

“The fear all along is that we don’t want to damage these records. We don’t want to put a stylus on them,” said Jerry Fabris, the curator of the Thomas Edison Historical Park in West Orange, N.J. “Now we have the technology to play them safely.”

Last month, the Historical Park posted online three never-before-heard Edison doll recordings, including the two from the Rolfses’ collection. “There are probably more out there, and we’re hoping people will now get them digitized,” Mr. Fabris said.

The technology, which is known as Irene (Image, Reconstruct, Erase Noise, Etc.), was developed by the particle physicist Carl Haber and the engineer Earl Cornell at Lawrence Berkeley. Irene extracts sound from cylinder and disk records. It can also reconstruct audio from recordings so badly damaged they were deemed unplayable.

“We are now hearing sounds from history that I did not expect to hear in my lifetime,” Mr. Fabris said.

The Rolfses said they were not sure what to expect in August when they carefully packed their two Edison doll cylinders, still attached to their motors, and drove from their home in Hortonville, Wis., to the National Document Conservation Center in Andover, Mass. The center had recently acquired Irene technology.

Audio

Cylinders carry sound in a spiral groove cut by a phonograph recording needle that vibrates up and down, creating a surface made of tiny hills and valleys. In the Irene set-up, a microscope perched above the shaft takes thousands of high-resolution images of small sections of the grooves.

Stitched together, the images provide a topographic map of the cylinder’s surface, charting changes in depth as small as one five-hundredth the thickness of a human hair. Pitch, volume and timbre are all encoded in the hills and valleys and the speed at which the record is played.

At the conservation center, the preservation specialist Mason Vander Lugt attached one of the cylinders to the end of a rotating shaft. Huddled around a computer screen, the Rolfses first saw the wiggly waveform generated by Irene. Then came the digital audio. The words were at first indistinct, but as Mr. Lugt filtered out more of the noise, the rhyme became clearer.

“That was the Eureka moment,” Mr. Rolfs said.

In 1890, a girl in Edison’s laboratory had recited:

There was a little girl,

And she had a little curl

Audio

Right in the middle of her forehead.

When she was good,

She was very, very good.

But when she was bad, she was horrid.

Recently, the conservation center turned up another surprise.

In 2010, the Woody Guthrie Foundation received 18 oversize phonograph disks from an anonymous donor. No one knew if any of the dirt-stained recordings featured Guthrie, but Tiffany Colannino, then the foundation’s archivist, had stored them unplayed until she heard about Irene.

Last fall, the center extracted audio from one of the records, labeled “Jam Session 9” and emailed the digital file to Ms. Colannino.

“I was just sitting in my dining room, and the next thing I know, I’m hearing Woody,” she said. In between solo performances of “Ladies Auxiliary,” “Jesus Christ,” and “Dead or Alive,” Guthrie tells jokes, offers some back story, and makes the audience laugh. “It is quintessential Guthrie,” Ms. Colannino said.

The Rolfses’ dolls are back in the display cabinet in Wisconsin. But with audio stored on several computers, they now have a permanent voice.

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